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What is plasma

Plasma is an ionized gaseous substance composed of atoms deprived of some electrons and positive and negative ions generated after ionization of atomic groups. It is a macroscopic electroneutral ionized gas with a scale larger than Debby's length. Its motion is mainly controlled by electromagnetic force and shows significant collective behavior. It is widespread in the universe and is often seen as the fourth state in which matter exists apart from solid, liquid and gas. Plasma is a good conductor of electricity, and it can be captured, moved, and accelerated using a clever magnetic field. The development of plasma physics provides new technologies and processes for the further development of materials, energy, information, environmental space, space physics, geophysics and other sciences. A plasma is a fourth state of matter different from solids, liquids and gases. Matter is made up of molecules, which are made up of atoms, which are made up of a positively charged nucleus and the negatively charged electrons surrounding it. When heated to a high enough temperature or for other reasons, the outer electrons break free from the nucleus and become free electrons, just like a student running to the playground after class. The electrons leave the nucleus, a process called ionization. At this time, the matter will become a positive nucleus and negative electrons composed of a uniform "paste", so people jokingly called it plasma, plasma, the total amount of positive and negative charges in the plasma is equal, so it is approximately neutral, so called plasma. The seemingly "mysterious" plasma is actually a common material in the universe. It is found in the sun, stars and lightning, and accounts for 99 percent of the entire universe. In the 21st century, people have mastered and used electric and magnetic field generation to control plasma. Common plasma is high temperature ionized gas, such as arc, neon lights and fluorescent lights in the gas, such as lightning, aurora, etc. The electron gas in the metal and the carrier in the semiconductor and the electrolyte solution can also be regarded as plasma. On earth, there are far fewer plasma materials than solid, liquid, or gaseous materials. In the universe, plasma is the main form of matter existence, accounting for more than 99% of the total matter in the universe, such as stars (including the sun), interstellar matter and the ionosphere around the Earth, etc., are plasma. In order to study the generation and properties of plasma to clarify the movement law of plasma in nature and use it for human service, magnetohydrodynamic and plasma dynamics have been formed in the past 30 or 40 years under the impetus of astrophysics, space physics, especially nuclear fusion research. Plasma is composed of a collection of ions, electrons and unionized neutral particles in a neutral state of matter. Plasmas can be divided into two types: high temperature and low temperature plasmas. Plasma temperature is respectively expressed by electron temperature and ion temperature, which are equal to each other and called high-temperature plasma. The difference is called a low temperature plasma. Low temperature plasma is widely used in many kinds Production area. For example: plasma TV, baby diaper surface waterproof coating, increase beer bottle barrier. What is more important is the instant application of computer chips to make the Internet era a reality. High-temperature plasmas occur only when the temperature is high enough. Stars constantly emit this plasma, which makes up 99% of the universe. A cryogenic plasma is a plasma that occurs at room temperature (although electrons are very hot). Low temperature plasma can be used for surface treatment such as oxidation, denaturation, or precipitation coating on organic and inorganic materials. Plasma is a form of matter composed mainly of free electrons and charged ions. It is widely found in the universe and is often regarded as the fourth state of matter. It is called Plasma state, or "supergas", or "Plasma". Plasma has high conductivity and strong coupling effect with electromagnetic field. Plasma was discovered by Crooks in 1879, and in 1928 the American scientists Irving Langmuir and Tonks first introduced the term 'plasma' to physics to describe the form of matter in gas discharge tubes [1]. Strictly speaking, a plasma is a gas cluster with high energy and kinetic energy. The total charge of the plasma is still neutral. By high energy of electric field or magnetic field, the electrons in the outer layer are shot out. A plasma is the fourth state of matter, an ionized "gas," which exhibits a highly excited unstable state consisting of ions (with different symbols and charges), electrons, atoms and molecules. In fact, the plasma phenomenon is not new. In nature, hot flames, brilliant lightning, and brilliant auroras are all the result of plasma action. For the universe as a whole, more than 99.9% of matter e

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Plasma cleaning

In the process of industrial production, super-purity cleaning of electronic components, optical components, mechanical parts, polymer materials and other surfaces to remove extremely small dirt particles is often a very critical process. Most of the traditional cleaning methods are wet cleaning. With the continuous development of modern high technology, this cleaning method has exposed many defects, that is, the residual cleaning agent and tiny particles will adhere to the surface after cleaning and drying, which cannot meet the requirements of modern high technology. The low-temperature plasma cleaning process actually removes the pollutants from the treated workpiece and takes them away under the impact of plasma reaction. Generally, the treatment cycle only takes a few minutes to remove the surface smudge-free and zero pollution. Because gas penetrates far more into tiny crevices than liquid, complex objects can also be thoroughly cleaned. The decisive factor in the plasma cleaning process is that no matter in the atmospheric pressure state or vacuum state, even under the greenhouse conditions, the plasma will react with organic pollutants, decompose into molecules such as water and carbon dioxide, and have good volatilization. Advantages of plasma cleaning: The treatment temperature is low and has wide suitability. Clean thoroughly without residue. Process control, good consistency, support downstream drying process. Low cost of use and waste disposal. Environmental protection technology, no harm to the operator's body. Plasma application Industry: Science software, semiconductor, microelectronics, printed circuit board, precision machinery, medical polymer, hardware processing, clock manufacturing, optical fiber cable, photovoltaic new energy, glassware.

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Plasma cleaning machine features

Due to the low cost and flexible operation of plasma cleaning machine, it has been widely used in various high-tech industries, especially in semiconductor, microelectronics industry, integrated circuit electronics industry and vacuum electronics industry, can be said to be a very important equipment. In addition, plasma cleaning machine in textile, automotive, aerospace, biological engineering, medical treatment, plastic rubber, archaeology and other industries also have a very wide range of applications. In these industries, the role played by the plasma cleaning machine is mainly cleaning, etching, activation and surface preparation. When in use, the three rf generators of 40KHz, 13.56MHz and 2.45GHz can be selected to meet the requirements of different cleaning efficiency and effects. Through the application of plasma cleaning machine in these industries, we can find that it has the following characteristics: 1. flexible operation, can simply change the type of processing gas and processing procedures; 2. It will not cause any harm to the operator's body during use; 3. for the plasma treatment, the cost of plasma cleaning machine is very low, has a high cost performance. Precisely because it has these characteristics, making the plasma cleaning machine equipment in plasma cleaning, etching, icp, plating coating, surface modification and plasma ashing has very extensive application in the occasion, and through its processing, can effectively improve the surface wetting ability, so that a variety of material to be able to conduct coating and plating operations, such as enhanced adhesion ability and the bonding force, at the same time can also be organic pollutants, oil or grease to clear clean, very much.

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How does a plasma become a high-energy electron under the action of an electric field

Plasma surface treatment is a low temperature plasma is a low pressure discharge (glow, corona, high frequency and microwave, etc.) produced by ionized gas, under the action of an electric field, free electrons in the gas from the electric field energy to become high energy electrons. These high-energy electrons collide with gas molecules, atoms, if the electronic energy is greater than the atoms or molecules of the excitation energy can produce molecules or atoms excited free radicals, ion and radiation, with different energy by ion bombardment or injection of polymer surface, produce off key or the introduction of functional groups, make surface activity to achieve the purpose of modification. Plasma surface activation: Under the action of plasma, some active atoms, free radicals and unsaturated bonds appear on the surface of refractory plastics, and these active groups will react with the active particles in the plasma to form new active groups. However, materials with active groups will be affected by the action of oxygen or the movement of molecular segments, making the surface active groups disappear. In the surface modification of materials by plasma, due to the effect of active particles on surface molecules in plasma, the surface molecular chains are broken to generate new active groups such as free radicals and double bonds, and then surface crosslinking and grafting reactions occur. Reactive plasma means that the active particles in the plasma can chemically react with the surface of the refractory material, so that a large number of polar groups are introduced to make the surface of the material turn from non-polar to polar, the surface tension is increased, and the adhesiveness is enhanced. In addition, under the high speed impact of plasma, molecular chains on the surface of refractory materials break and cross link, which increases the relative molecular mass of surface molecules, improves the weak boundary layer condition, and also plays a positive role in improving the surface adhesion performance. Reactive plasma active gases mainly include 02, H2, NH3, C02, H20, S02, H√H20, air, glycerol vapor and ethanol vapor.

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